YOUTH MILITACY AND AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA (A CASE STUDY OF WARRI METROPOLIS)
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Significance of the Study – – — – – – 7
1.5 Scope of Study – – – – – – – – 8
1.6 Limitation – – – – – – – – – 8
1.7 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 9
2.1 Political Crisis and Return to Militancy – – 17
2.2 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger
Delta (MEND) – – – – – – – 19
3.1 Theoretical Framework and Research Method – 25
3.2 Research Method – – – – – – 30
4.1 Date Presentation and Analysis – – – – 37
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 46
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 48
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 49
This study examined youth militancy and amnesty in the Niger Delta, a case study of Warri Metropolis. The study was base on primary and secondary data and analysis. The study reveals among things that youth militancy in the Niger Delta is as a result of the neglect of the people by the government. They produce almost 90% of the nation’s economy but the people there are not remembered.
It was argued that with oil becoming dominant, derivation was reduced from 50% to zero% which the Niger Delta people seen as being grossly unfair and an insult to the sensibilities of the people of Niger Delta. This injustice led to an uprising by the Ijaw’s led by a former student leader Isaac Alaka Boro.
The revolt according to political analysts was put down in twelve days. It was also been argued that the Nigeria civil war that raged from 1967 to 1970 had the fight for the control of the Niger Delta oil wealth as part of its causes
1.1 BACKROUND OF THE STUDY
Strategically located along the gulf of Guinea and a top enormous high quality oil reserves, the three Nigerian states of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers and some others- commonly referred to as the Niger Delta have been plagued with armed groups and insurgents for decades. Although its tremendous resource wealth should make the Delta one of Western Africa’s most prosperous regions, decades of neglect by the Nigeria government widespread corruption, and the environmental damage caused by the MNCS, operating in the region has alienated and marginalized the local population and allowed armed groups to proliferate. Compensation paid out by the MNCS for appropriated and polluted land has led to inter-communal and inter-ethnic violence, most notably between the Ijaws and the Itsekiris in the Warri area of Delta State.
Since the discovery of oil in Delta this type of ethnic conflict has been driven primarily by the desire to control resources along disputed community borders.
Weather these armed groups are genuinely highing for social justice for their communities or are interested merely in profit, most sustain themselves through criminal activity such as piracy, kidnapping, and oil theft or “Bunkering”. While it is hard to estimate how much oil is actually stolen, there are indications that it might be as high as 5-10% of Nigeria’s total national production.
In an effort to combat oil bunkering, the Nigerian government began to increase its military presences in the Delta in 2003: this culminated in the deployment of a Joint Task Force (JTF) in 2008. However, these actions triggered serious unintended consequences, as some military personnel took the opportunity to participate in the illicit trade. In addition, reports of extortion, rape, and the general intimidation of the populace by the security forces drove even more alienated youths into the armed groups.
While violence was initially directed at the MNCs, the attempts of the JTF to curtail the militant groups led to increased fighting between the militants and the army. Yet, aside from the military and some sporadic and fleeting programs, the Nigerian government has virtually no presences in the region. As an executive puts it: “you won’t fine police stations, court house, or primary schools for vast stretches. There are no post offices. There is no presence of the government for miles. No electricity is provided. There is no water supply. Beyond legitimate concerns for human right, the United States was clear strategic interests in a stable Niger Delta. In the run up to national elections in 2007, militancy was at fever pitch and the combination of that and sabotage reduced oil industry output by 25-35% of capacity. Despite the clear instability of the Delta, Nigeria continued to rank 15th in global oil output in 2008, and was the 5th largest supplier of oil to the U.S.
As attack on the local oil industry have caused clear spikes in the worldwide price of crude, a steady and secure supply from the Delta would go a long way towards stabilizing the global market, helping to wean the United States from its reliance on Middle Eastern imports, and enhancing energy security.
The question now is: what are the possible causes and the likely consequences of the youth militancy and amnesty in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis).
Some of the answers to the above questions can be found in the statement problem that follows.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For sometimes now, people have been making their views known and the issue relating to youth military and amnesty in the Niger-Delta (Warri Metropolis).
While some people see militancy as the failure of government to settle or compensate the inhabitants of the Niger Delta, while others see as criminal behavior. Their conclusion is that the militants use this means to enrich themselves and not for the entire members of the area.
It is with this situation that this project work was carried out to determine the relationship between youth militancy and amnesty in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropoly).
However, the researcher shall focus and seek answers to the following research questions:
- What do you think is the cause of militancy in the Niger Delta?
- Does militancy stop the marginalization of the Niger Delta?
- Does amnesty tried to stop the problem of militancy in the Niger Delta?
- Does amnesty help in the education of some militants?
- Had politician contributed in the succeeding of militancy
- What do you thing is the solution to militancy in the Niger Delta?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- To determine the extent of militancy among youth in Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis)
- To determine the issue that led to militancy in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis)
- To determine the influence of amnesty on the youth in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis)
- To determine the influence of amnesty on the educational development of the Niger Delta youth.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is basically produced to fulfill an academic requirement. Nevertheless, it is hoped that it would go a long way to encourage amnesty among the Niger Delta youth.
The study is not intended to break an entire new ground, rather, its undertaken in the premises is that it will add to the existing literature in the area of issues of youth militancy and amnesty. In addition, this study is very necessary especially at this time of kidnapping in Nigeria. And will add empirical knowledge of youth militancy and amnesty.
The findings will also provide useful background information to future researchers in the contribution of amnesty for nation buildings.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work is made to cover issues relating to the youth militancy and amnesty in the Niger Delta as limited to Warri Metropolis. Solutions and recommendations shall be made to those problems in view of trying to put an end as in a lasting solution.
A list of constraints had to be checked against in the course of this study, the most being the time factor. This project has to be produced while at the same time attending to lectures. During class work (assignments) and more so, preparing for examination.
Furthermore, financial constrains was also a major factor as regard to proper compellation of this work. This is because no work does not involve money.
However, my findings were limited to the data and information made available to me by all concerned.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- 1. Youth: The quality or state of being young. Young people considered as a group. The time of life when a person is young especially the time of life before a child becomes an adult.
- 2. Militant: Using or willing to use force or strong pressure to achieve your aims, especially to achieve social or political change.
- 3. Amnesty: A period at time during which people can admit to a crime or give up weapons without being punished.
- 4. Education: Education can be defined as the systematic socialization of the young generation by religion and moral belief, feeling of Nationality and collective opinion of all kind.
Education could also be defined as the transmission of knowledge, skill and values etc. which an individual needs to master his physical and social environment and adopt himself to the demands of the society of which he is a member.