TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT AND PSYCHO SOCIAL ISSUES AS DETERMINANT OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN OGUN STATE. (A STUDY OF BABCOCK, CONVENANT, OLABISI ONABANJO, TAI-SOLARIN UNIVERSITY)
The study sought to examine technological advancement and psychosocial issues (resilience, academic stress, peer relations and family structure) as determinants of academic performance of Economics Students in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State. A two-stage sampling technique was adopted to select 600 (200-400 Level) students in Covenant University Ota, Babcock University, Ilishan, Tai-Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode and Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye. The study made use of a well-structured questionnaire to solicit information from the respondents. Data collected were subjected to the quantitative technique of regression analysis. The results revealed that technological advancement is not a significant determinant of academic performance (p>.05); resilience (p<.05) and academic stress (p<.05) are the psychosocial issues that significantly determined academic performance and lastly, the joint influence of academic performance and psychosocial issues significantly determined academic performance (p<.05). Based on this, the study suggests amongst others that, students should properly utilize technological facilities such as internet, laptop, e-notebook, ipad and the like in their academics. These facilities should be used to source for information pertaining to their courses, assignments, tests, term-papers, examinations and projects. This will widen the knowledge frontiers of the students, raises their level of exposure and enlightenment, which will further improve their academic performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The National Policy on Education (2009) recognizes education as the nation’s greatest asset towards the quick development of its economic potentials, sociological and human resources, hence, it focuses on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen. Education has been the pillar upon which all meaningful national development is built. It is the instrument which sets the pace for growth, development, and understanding of issues in their entire ramification. For education to be relevant in a society, it has to be effectively taught and this can only be achieved through the use of good methods and suitable instructional materials.
Schools, Colleges and Universities have no worth without students. Students are most essential assets for any educational institute. The social and economic development of the country is directly linked with students’ performance. The students’ performance plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leaders and manpower for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development. (Ali, N., Jusof, K., Ali, S., Mokhtar, N., and Salamt, A.S. 2009).
In the school setting, the teaching and learning process is not complete without an evaluation of the learning outcome. The academic performance of a student measures the student’s level of understanding of what he/she has been taught.
Epunam (1999) defines academic performance of a child as the learning outcomes of the child which include the knowledge, skills, and ideas acquired and retained through their course of study within and outside the classroom situation.
Previously most studies of student academic performance conducting on such issues like gender differences, teacher’s education and teaching style, class environment, socio economic factor and family education background. This research focuses on Technological Advancement and Psychosocial issues on the academic performance of Economics students.
Technological Advancement has to do with Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) particularly computers, laptop (which make use of internet) and mobile phones, while psycho-social issues which is divided into psychological factors: Academic stress and Resilience; and social factors Peer relation and Family structure.
The use of computers has had a major impact on the university school context and in the teaching and learning method. (Ema, and Ajayi, 2006). One puzzling question is the effective impact of these computers’ usage on students’ performance and the returns of education. The effect of computer usage on learning is currently in relation to the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. Computers are the technologies used in conveying, manipulating and storing of data by electronic means. They provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text bound classroom into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environment. To meet these challenges, learning institutions must embrace the new technologies and appropriate ICT tools for learning. (Ogunsola, 2005).
The direct link between ICT use and students’ study habit and academic performance has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Some of them help students with their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidoa and Bousiou 2005).
Leuven, Lindahl, Oosterbeek, and Webbink (2004) stated that there is no evidence for a relationship between increased educational uses of ICT on students’ performance. In fact, they find a consistently negative and marginally significant relationship between ICT use and some student performance measures. Supporting this, some students may use ICT to increase their leisure time and have less time to study. Online gaming and increased communication channels do not necessarily mean increased achievement.
Karim and Hassan (2006) noted the exponential growth in digital information which changes the way student perceive study and reading and in how printed materials are used to facilitate study.
Psycho-social issues on the other hand are Resilience, Academic Stress, Peer Relation and Family Structure. Resilience and Academic stress are psycho issues to be discuss and their determinant to students’ academic performance.
Resilience can be considered to be a social construction (Haeussle, 2013), which implies that resilient qualities can be acquired and developed by individuals (Higgins, 1994). It is not considered a personality trait, but a dynamic and developmental construct, associated with positive adaptation of individuals in the face of adversity and a product of professional and personal dispositions (Gu & Day, 2007). Resilience is one of the most essential personal factors influencing academic achievement.
Academic stress is a mental distress with respect to some apprehended frustration associated with academic failure, apprehension of such failure or even an awareness of the possibility of such failure (Gupta and Khan 1987). In the context of school, academic stress means a pervasive sense of urgency to learn all these things which are related to or prescribed by the school (Shah, 1988). Academic stress is the product of a combination of academic related demands that exceeds the adaptive resources available to an individual. It is widely acknowledging that a student’s academic achievement and academic ability depends on both the internal and external factors such as proper study habits, intelligence, educational aspirations of self and parents, medium of instruction. If these situations are not conducive for learning, they may lead to academic stress.
Peer- Relations and Family Structure are the social issue that will be discuss in this project work and their determinant to students’ academic performance. Peer-relations positive are promoters of school engagement as they ill up the necessities of belonging and attachment (Martin & Dowson, 2009), Studies show that children who experience frequent mistreatment by peers are at risk for poor psychological adjustment and lower grade point average (Burk & Laursen, 2005; Schwartz, Gorman, Dodge, Pettit and Bates 2008).
The home has a great influence on the child’s psychological, emotional, social and economic state. The state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life. This is because the family background and context of a child affect his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. Family structure in terms of single and two parent families has been noted in the literature to have a significant influence on students’ performance and mental development (Tenibiaje, 2009; Eweniyi, 2005). This is because providing a supportive learning environment at home requires parents’ time as much as financial resources.
However, objective of this work is to study the effect of Technological Advancement and Psychosocial Issues on the academic performance of Economics students in higher institution in Ogun State. Consequently, the study shall make sound recommendation that will improve the academic performances of the students in the study Area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Technological Advancement (Information and Communication Technologies) has gained immeasurable ground in the lives of students in Nigeria, most especially in the higher institutions. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is a common sight today in our schools as you see students going to school/class with some of the most expensive ICT gadget e.g. sophisticated mobile phones, tablets, iPad and laptops that have all the application, facilities and software that can connect them to the internet and all forms of social media platforms and other website and so on. Where they chat, download, upload, exchange and play different kinds of media contents, which most are pornographic in nature. (Olofuniyi, Fashiku, and Owombo, 2012).
The pattern of usage of most of these ICT gadgets by the students during and after school hours, such as their level of engagement in free night calls chatting, instant messaging, social networking and examination malpractices etc. is greatly influencing their academic performance.
Also, the psycho social issues, which comprises of psychological and social factors determine the students’ academic performance which hinder student from attempting their dream profession later in life. The focus of the current study is to determine how each of these psychosocial variables (Resilience, Academic Stress, Peer Relation and Family Structure) affected the student academic performance either negatively or positively.
This study is to conduct a research on the influence of Technological Advancement and Psychosocial issues among Economics students in higher institutions in Ogun State on their academic performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY`
The objectives of the study are to
- To explain the effect of Technological Advancement on the academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State.
- To determine the influence of psychosocial issues (Resilience, Academic Stress, Peer Relation and Family Structure) on the academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institution in Ogun State.
- To determine the influence between the independent variables (Technological Advancement and Psychosocial issues) on the dependent variables (Academic Performance) of Economics students in Higher Institution in Ogun State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Will the effect of technological advancement (ICT) significantly determine academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State?
- Will the influence of psychosocial issues (Resilience, Academic Stress, Peer Relation and Family Structure) significantly determine the academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State?
- Will there be any significant influence between technological advancement and psychosocial issues on the academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO1: The effect of technological advancement will not significantly determine the academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State.
HO2: The influence of psychosocial issues will not significantly determine the academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State
HO3: Technological Advancement and psycho-social issues have no significant influence on academic performance of Economics students in Higher Institutions in Ogun State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this study will contribute to the existing literature and will be beneficial to the education sector and the Ministry of Education, particularly in the area of educational technology, and the study will also help to alleviate educational stress and improve social behaviors of the student.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This is the learning outcomes of the child which include the knowledge, skills and ideals acquired and retained through his/her course of study within and outside the classroom situation. It is also the extent to which a student has achieved his or her educational goals.
ACADEMIC STRESS: Is the mental distress with respect to some anticipated frustration associated with academic failure or even unawareness to the possibility of such failure.
DETERMINANT: Something that controls or affects what happens in a particular situation, or a factor that decisively affects the nature or outcome of something.
FAMILY STRUCTURE: Is the composition and membership of the family and the organization and patterning of relationships among individual family members.
HIGHER INSTITUTION: A learning environment which grants academic degree in various subjects, typically provide undergraduate education and post graduate education.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT): It is any communication device or application, encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computers and network hardware and software, satellite system as well as the various service applications.
PEER RELATION: Is the affiliation of children with other peer group of same interest and attribute.
PSYCHOSOCIAL: Relating to the interaction of social factors and individuals’ thought and behaviors.
RESILIENCE: The capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, toughness or an ability to recover from adversity, depression or adjust to change.
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT: It is the generation of information or the discovery of knowledge that advance the understanding of scientific relation or technology.